The Pharaonic era in Egypt’s history extends to about three thousand years, from 3200 BC until Alexander the Great entered Egypt in 323 BC.
During the Pharaonic era, Egypt witnessed many stages of renaissance and progress that left a huge legacy of the manifestations and effects of civilization, construction, science and arts.
Historians divide the Pharaonic era in the history of Egypt into three successive sections:
The old state.
The modern state.
Historians also divide this era into thirty ruling dynasties divided into these three phases of Egypt’s history.
Antique era ( dynasties 1 and 2):
King “Mina” is credited with achieving the political unity of Egypt around the year 3200 BC. AD, and was able to establish the first ruling family in the history of Pharaonic Egypt, and Mina wanted to secure the unity of the country, so he established a city near the head of the Delta called “Memphis”, and this unity was an important factor in the renaissance of Egypt in various aspects of life.
The old state (dynasties 3 to 6):
The era of this state is considered the period of Egypt’s youth and was characterized by stability, security and peace, which facilitated its economic, cultural and artistic progress. The ruling banner of the kings of the old state was convened by the builders of the pyramids around 2800 BC, after the throne of the country moved to Memphis at the hands of Pharaoh Zoser The owner of the oldest known pyramid, which is the step pyramid at Saqqara, and the civilization of Egypt flourished in the days of this state, and there is no evidence of this from the huge pyramids of Giza for Kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
The first middle age (dynasties 7 to 10):
This era began around the year 2200 BC. M when the reins of power slipped from the hands of the pharaoh until “Mentuhotep II” was able to unite the country a second time.
The Middle Kingdom (dynasties 11, 12):
After Mentuhotep II, the prince of Thebes, managed around the year 2065 BC. AD From the reunification of the country, he established a strong government that succeeded in consolidating the system and establishing security, which helped the country’s economic recovery and the advancement of arts and architecture. Then, it began in 2000 BC. M. The rule of a great man is Amenemhat I, who has the greatest credit for building the renaissance that appeared during the days of the Middle Kingdom.
The kings and queens of the Twelfth Dynasty won international fame in the fields of politics, war, culture, civilization and religion, such as “Ahmose” the hero of liberation, “Amenhotep I” the just, who issued a law banning forced labor and establishing fair standards for wages and incentives, and “Thutmose I” the warrior who expanded the Egyptian borders From the north and south, spreading education and expanding in the opening of mines and the mining industry, and “Thutmose II” and “Thutmose III” the emperor with outstanding military genius and the first great conqueror in the history of the world, and “Thutmose IV” the diplomat who was the first to be interested in codifying and recording international treaties, and Amenhotep III, the richest king in the ancient world, who opened schools “houses of life” to spread education and plastic and applied arts, and Akhenaten, the first monotheist and the first king in human history who called for the oneness of God, the Creator of everything, and Tutankhamun.Which has gained fame in the contemporary world, and among the most famous queens of this family, for example, Queen “Ahhotep” the wife of King “Seqenenre” and Queen “Ahmose Nefertari” the wife of Ahmose I, Queen “Tiye” the third daughter of the people and the wife of “Akhenatenhotep” Nefertiti, the wife of Akhenaten, and the great Queen Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt for nearly twenty years, and during her reign, Egypt reached the highest peak in civilization, architecture and international trade, as a commercial and scientific naval mission was sent to the country of Punt, as well as one of the greatest and most magnificent and luxurious architectural monuments. It is the temple of Deir el-Bahari on the western shore of the Nile opposite Luxor. It is a unique temple in its design and has no equal among all the temples of the ancient world. This era also witnessed the “Religious Revolution of Akhenaten.”Where he called for the worship of one god and symbolized him with the sun disk and established a new capital for the country and named it “Akhitaton”.
The second middle age (dynasties from 13 to 17):
During the Twelfth Dynasty, about 1725 BC. AD, the pastoral tribes that inhabited Palestine and were called “Hyksos” raided Egypt and invaded its lands. When the strength of the Hyksos weakened, the good princes rose and struggled to restore their stolen country’s freedom. God wrote them success and Ahmose managed to seize their capital in Delta and expelled from the country.
The modern state (dynasties from 18 to 20):
After Ahmose expelled the Hyksos, he returned to his country in 1571 BC. AD where he eliminated the revolutions of the Nubians in the south and turned to internal reform in the country and was interested in establishing an organized working army and armed it with all the weapons known at that time and provided it with war wheels. Unity and his rivalry with the King of the Hittites ended with the signing of a non-aggression treaty between the two parties after the Battle of Kadesh. This treaty is the first peace treaty in history and Egypt became a major power, thus becoming a great sprawling empire.
Late Period (dynasties 21-30):
This era was the closing chapter in Pharaonic history, as Egypt from the rule of the 21st dynasty until the 28th dynasty was occupied by the Assyrians in 670 BC, then the Persians until the rule of the pharaohs ended with the 30th dynasty and the entry of Alexander the Great into Egypt.
The arts of the pharaonic civilization:
Architecture : The Egyptians excelled in the art of architecture and their immortal monuments are the best evidence of this. In the ancient state, terraces and pyramids were built, which represent funerary buildings, and the first pyramid built was the “Pyramid of Djoser”, then the “Pyramid of Meidum”, but the three most famous of them are the three pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx and were built In the era of the Fourth Dynasty, the number of pyramids that were built as a resting place for the pharaohs reached 97.
Then the spread of funerary temples began in the era of the Middle Kingdom, and the kings of the 12th dynasty took care of the Fayoum region in irrigation works. He built castles, forts and walls on the eastern borders of Egypt.
The era of the modern state is considered the greatest period known to architecture methods, murals, crafts and delicate arts that appear on the walls of some huge temples of various designs such as Karnak, Luxor and Abu Simbel.
The era of “Tuthmosis the First” is considered a turning point in the construction of the pyramid to be a cemetery, and the carving of hidden tombs in the interior of the mountain on the western mainland in Luxor.
The artists of this country, in order to preserve the wall inscriptions, used submerged and simple excavations so as not to be lost or distorted. The latest discovery from the tombs of the Valley of the Kings is the tomb of the sons of Ramses II, which is one of the largest in area and contains 15 mummies.
As for the pharaonic obelisks, they were erected in pairs in front of the entrances to the temples, and they were carved from granite. Among the most beautiful examples of the buildings of the era of the ancient Egyptian empire were the temples of “Amon”, “Khufu”, “Karnak”, “Luxor”, “Ramseum” and “Hatshepsut” on the eastern mainland And temples carved in the rock such as “Abu Simbel the Great” and “Abu Simbel the Small”.
New trends emerged in architecture, plastic and applied arts, and they were clearly demonstrated in the art of carving huge and small statues, and the decoration of temple columns and wall inscriptions.
Literature : The traces of the Egyptians confirm their ingenuity in writing and literature, and this is evident in the traces left by the Egyptians. History will not forget the Egyptians’ preference over humanity in inventing writing, which the Greeks called the “hieroglyphic script.” The hieroglyphic alphabet consists of 24 letters. The ancient Egyptians used black or red ink in Writing on papyrus.
The Egyptians excelled in religious literature that dealt with religious beliefs and their theories about the afterlife, the secrets of the universe, the various myths of the gods, prayers and chants. Among the oldest examples of religious literature are the “texts of the pyramids” and the “Book of the Dead”.
The ancient Egyptian writer also excelled in writing stories and was keen that the word be a tool for communicating wisdom and etiquette. The Egyptians remained keen to tell their heritage of wisdom and proverbs and to repeat them on their feasts, celebrations and traditions.
Thus, the Egyptians were among the most eager peoples of the world to record and record their history and the events they were exposed to in their lives. With this civilized step, many Egyptian writers, wise men and intellectuals appeared, who left us works that indicate the extent of the sophistication of thought and culture in Egypt.
Music : The Egyptian loved music and singing, and the Egyptians accepted music and used it in raising young people and in public and private ceremonies, especially in the army, as well as using it in prayers and burial of the dead. They invented patterns and forms of instruments that perform different rhythms and tones and developed them throughout the stages of their ancient history.
Clothes and decorations :
The Egyptians knew adornment with jewelry, and their crafts were characterized by high technical accuracy and beauty of formation, and decorative elements were derived from nature, such as the papyrus plant, palm, lotus flower and precious stones, and they used amulets that they believed would protect them from evil forces. And henna, as the clothes in Pharaonic Egypt differed from one class to another, and the clothes were made of fine linen or silk fabrics imported from the ancient country of Syria, and the clothes varied according to different occasions.